If you have arrived at this point, you have likely added several new Hindi verbs to your vocabulary! बहुत अच्छा! Bahut Acchaa! (Well done!) Now, how do you use these infinitive verbs in a sentence? Good question! You will need to conjugate the verbs into the tenses in Hindi! Conjugation refers to the linguistic practice of modifying a verb to reflect grammatical categories such as subject, gender, tense, aspect, and mood.

In Hindi, verb conjugation can be done as follows:

  1. Identify the principle components of the infinitive verb (the root + the stem). For example, in the verb बोलना "bolnaa" (to speak), the root is "bol" and the stem is "naa."
  2. Drop the stem. For example, in the verb bolnaa, the stem "naa" is dropped in conjugation, leaving the root "bol."
  3. Append a new stem to the root according to Hindi verb conjugation rules. This stem will depend on the subject's gender and number, and the tense being reflected in the sentence. For example, to conjugate "bolnaa" to reflect the singular subject "I" in the masculine present simple tense, we append to the root "bol" the stem "taa," making the conjugated form "boltaa." If the verb root ends with a vowel (e.g. the root आ "aa" of the verb आना "aanaa"), then add या "yaa" to the root to derive the masculine singular tense only, but conjugate other tenses as you would normally.
  4. Depending on the tense being reflected, an auxiliary verb is attached to the sentence after the conjugated verb. For example, to reflect the subject "I" in the masculine present simple tense, the auxiliary verb "hoon" (conjugation of the verb "honaa" (to be)) is added, so the complete sentence becomes "Main boltaa hoon," meaning "I speak."
  5. The above rules focus on the conjugation of intransitive verbs, that is, verbs which never have a direct object. Transitive verbs, on the other hand, can have a direct object. Why does this matter? Transitive verbs in the past simple, present perfect, and past perfect tenses in Hindi use the ने construction for verb conjugation. In this construction, the postposition ने is used after the subject, the subject is put into the oblique form, and if the verb has a direct object, the verb must agree with the object in both number and gender. If the transitive verb has no stated direct object in a sentence, the masculine singular form of the verb is used. Auxiliary verbs must also agree with the object, not the subject.

REGULAR HINDI VERB TENSE CONJUGATION

The table below provides the transliterated conjugation of the regular, intransitive verb "bolnaa" in common tenses in Hindi. Tenses indicate whether an action occurs in the past, present, or future. For each of the subjects/tenses in Hindi, two conjugations are given: the first is the masculine form, the second is the femininine form. The verb conjugation rules for other regular verbs will align with the forms shown below. Most verbs in Hindi are regular verbs, meaning their conjugation follows a standard, predictable pattern.

Regular verb बोलना "bolnaa" conjugated into tenses in Hindi
Present Simple
(I speak)
Present Continuous
(I am speaking)
Present Perfect
(I have spoken)
Past Simple
(I spoke)
Past Continuous
(I was speaking)
Past Perfect
(I had spoken)
Past Imperfect
(I used to speak)
Future Simple
(I will speak)
Future Continuous
(I will be speaking)
Main boltaa hoon
boltee hoon
bol rahaa hoon
bol rahee hoon
bolaa hoon
bolee hoon
bolaa
bolee
bol rahaa thaa
bol rahee thee
bolaa thaa
bolee thee
boltaa thaa
boltee thee
boloongaa
boloongee
bol rahaa hoongaa
bol rahee hoongee
Too boltaa hai
boltee hai
bol rahaa hai
bol rahee hai
bolaa hai
bolee hai
bolaa
bolee
bol rahaa thaa
bol rahee thee
bolaa thaa
bolee thee
boltaa thaa
boltee thee
bolegaa
bolegee
bol rahaa hogaa
bol rahee hogee
Tum bolte ho
boltee ho
bol rahe ho
bol rahee ho
bole ho
boleen ho
bole
boleen
bol rahe the
bol rahee theen
bole the
boleen theen
bolte the
boltee theen
bologe
bologee
bol rahe hoge
bol rahee hogee
Aap bolte hain
boltee hain
bol rahe hain
bol rahee hain
bole hain
boleen hain
bole
boleen
bol rahe the
bol rahee theen
bole the
boleen theen
bolte the
boltee theen
bolenge
bolengee
bol rahe honge
bol rahee hongee
Voh
Yeh
boltaa hai
boltee hai
bol rahaa hai
bol rahee hai
bolaa hai
bolee hai
bolaa
bolee
bol rahaa thaa
bol rahee thee
bolaa thaa
bolee thee
boltaa thaa
boltee thee
bolegaa
bolegee
bol rahaa hogaa
bol rahee hogee
Ham bolte hain
boltee hain
bol rahe hain
bol rahee hain
bole hain
boleen hain
bole
boleen
bol rahe the
bol rahee theen
bole the
boleen theen
bolte the
boltee theen
bolenge
bolengee
bol rahe honge
bol rahee hongee
Ve
Ye
bolte hain
boltee hain
bol rahe hain
bol rahee hain
bole hain
boleen hain
bole
boleen
bol rahe the
bol rahee theen
bole the
boleen theen
bolte the
boltee theen
bolenge
bolengee
bol rahe honge
bol rahee hongee

IRREGULAR HINDI VERB TENSE CONJUGATION

In addition to regular verbs, there are a handful of irregular verbs in Hindi whose conjugation is nonstandard and differs slightly from regular verbs. The verbs जाना "jaanaa" (to go), करना "karnaa" (to do), लेना "lenaa" (to take), देना "denaa" (to give), and पीना "peenaa" (to drink) are all irregular verbs. The table below provides the transliterated conjugation of the irregular, intransitive verb "jaanaa" in common tenses in Hindi.

Irregular verb जाना "jaanaa" conjugated into tenses in Hindi
Present Simple
(I go)
Present Continuous
(I am going)
Present Perfect
(I have gone)
Past Simple
(I went)
Past Continuous
(I was going)
Past Perfect
(I had gone)
Past Imperfect
(I used to go)
Future Simple
(I will go)
Future Continuous
(I will be going)
Main jaataa hoon
jaatee hoon
jaa rahaa hoon
jaa rahee hoon
gayaa hoon
gaee hoon
gayaa
gaee
jaa rahaa thaa
jaa rahee thee
gayaa thaa
gaee thee
jaataa thaa
jaatee thee
jaaoongaa
jaaoongee
jaa rahaa hoongaa
jaa rahee hoongee
Too jaataa hai
jaatee hai
jaa rahaa hai
jaa rahee hai
gayaa hai
gaee hai
gayaa
gaee
jaa rahaa thaa
jaa rahee thee
gayaa thaa
gaee thee
jaataa thaa
jaatee thee
jaaegaa
jaaegee
jaa rahaa hogaa
jaa rahee hogee
Tum jaate ho
jaatee ho
jaa rahe ho
jaa rahee ho
gae ho
gaeen ho
gae
gaeen
jaa rahe the
jaa rahee theen
gae the
gaeen theen
jaate the
jaatee theen
jaaoge
jaaogee
jaa rahe hoge
jaa rahee hogee
Aap jaate hain
jaatee hain
jaa rahe hain
jaa rahee hain
gae hain
gaeen hain
gae
gaeen
jaa rahe the
jaa rahee theen
gae the
gaeen theen
jaate the
jaatee theen
jaaenge
jaaengee
jaa rahe honge
jaa rahee hongee
Voh
Yeh
jaataa hai
jaatee hai
jaa rahaa hai
jaa rahee hai
gayaa hai
gaee hai
gayaa
gaee
jaa rahaa thaa
jaa rahee thee
gayaa thaa
gaee thee
jaataa thaa
jaatee thee
jaaegaa
jaaegee
jaa rahaa hogaa
jaa rahee hogee
Ham jaate hain
jaatee hain
jaa rahe hain
jaa rahee hain
gae hain
gaeen hain
gae
gaeen
jaa rahe the
jaa rahee theen
gae the
gaeen theen
jaate the
jaatee theen
jaaenge
jaaengee
jaa rahe honge
jaa rahee hongee
Ve
Ye
jaate hain
jaatee hain
jaa rahe hain
jaa rahee hain
gae hain
gaeen hain
gae
gaeen
jaa rahe the
jaa rahee theen
gae the
gaeen theen
jaate the
jaatee theen
jaaenge
jaaengee
jaa rahe honge
jaa rahee hongee